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Full text of "The manufacture and properties of iron and steel"

CHAPTER IX.
FUEL.
SECTION IXa.—The combustion of fuel.—A full definition of the word "fuel" would involve the calorific value of silicon, manganese, phosphorus and iron, but, as usually understood, the term embraces only the forms of carbon known as charcoal and anthracite coal, and combinations of carbon and hydrogen, such as natural gas, petroleum and bituminous coal, while the meaning of "combustion" is narrowed down to the union of such substances with oxygen. For practical purposes it may be considered that in all compounds of hydrogen and carbon there is an isolation of each element just previous to union with oxygen, so that the molecular history may be represented by the following equations:
C-4-20=C02,
1 kilo C-f-2 2/3 kilos 0=3 2/3 kilos C02, producing 8133 calories.
CO+0=C02, 1 kilo CO+4/7 kilo 0=1 4/7 kilos C02,
producing 2438 calories.
1 cubic meter CO-4-1/2 cubic meter 0—1 cubic meter C02, producing 3072 calories.
2 H-fO=H20,
1 kilo H+8 kilos 0=9 kilos H20, producing 34,500 calories, including latent heat in steam.
29,040 calories, not including latent heat in steam.
1 cubic meter' H'-f-1/2 cubic meter 0=1 cubic meter H20,
producing 2614 calories, not including latent heat in steam.
C-f 0=00,
1 kilo C-f 1 1/3 kilos 0=2 1/3 kilos CO,
producing 2450 calories.
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